100 years of Jallianwala Bagh massacre, deadly and the most horrific genocide during the British rule in India

A cold-blooded genocide shook up India 100 years ago, and still send tremors through those who know what exactly happened at the Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar, on April 13, 1919.

A cold-blooded genocide that led to the bloodiest Baisakhi ever. This is probably the most simple and honest way of describing what happened at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar, Punjab on April 13, 1919. The ground stands witness to the inhuman atrocities of the British Empire.

Here’s what happened at Jallianwala Bagh that day

On Sunday, April 13, 1919, the day of Baisakhi — one of the largest festivals of the Sikh community — a peaceful crowd gathered at the ceremonial ground from the nearby Golden Temple to celebrate

As many as 90 British Indian Army soldiers, commanded by Colonel Reginald Dyer, opened fire at over 20,000 unarmed men, women and children without any warning or order to disperse the mob

Dyer marched his men to a raised bank and ordered them to kneel and fire at the entire Jallianwala Bagh

He ordered his soldiers to reload their rifles several times and they were ordered to shoot and killHe continued shooting, approximately 1650 rounds in all, until all ammunition was exhausted.

The garden was closed on all sides by houses and buildings and had a few narrow entrances, most of which were kept permanently lockedThere was just one main entrance which was relatively wider, but it was guarded by troops backed by armoured vehicles — loaded with machine guns — since the vehicles were unable to enter through the narrow entrance

Apart from the many deaths due to direct shooting, a number of people died from stampedes or by suffocation from jumping into a solitary well on the Jallianwala ground to escape bullets

The dead couldn’t be moved from there since a curfew had been declared and many more were killed during the night

Facts about the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre every Indian must knowThe number of deaths caused by the shooting is disputed. However, a plaque set up after independence in the monument at the sight states that 120 bodies were pulled out of the well

Back in his headquarters, General Dyer reported to his superiors that he had been “confronted by a revolutionary army”

In a telegram sent to Dyer, British Lieutenant-Governor of Punjab, Sir Michael O’ Dwyer wrote:

“Your action is correct. Lieutenant Governor approves.”

Upon the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre enquiry, Dyer declared that it was a necessary measure as Punjab, along with Bengal, was the hub of anti-British rebels and anti-empire movements and that the firing was “not to disperse the meeting but to punish the Indians for disobedience”

The heinous incident of Jallianwala Bagh triggered a nationwide uproar

Rabindranath Tagore rejected his knighthoodGandhi called for nationwide protests and generations awakened to the tune of independence

Even the British nationals were furious about the MassacreColonel Dyer was dropped from the House of Commons

Photo :Reginald Dyer, The Butcher of Amritsar

However, Dyer was lauded for his ‘feat’ and honoured at the House of Lords in England

“A 100 years ago today, our beloved freedom fighters were martyred at Jallianwala Bagh. A horrific massacre, a stain on civilisation, that day of sacrifice can never be forgotten by India. At this solemn moment, we pay our tribute to the immortals of Jallianwala #PresidentKovind,” President Kovind tweeted.

As many as 1650 rounds were fired, 500 people were killed and more than 1200 wounded with ten minutes. Bhagat Singh visited Jallianwala Bagh on the next day of this massacre and collected a packet full of blood soaked soil which be kept at his home.

“Today, when we observe 100 years of the horrific Jallianwala Bagh massacre, India pays tributes to all those martyred on that fateful day. Their valour and sacrifice will never be forgotten. Their memory inspires us to work even harder to build an India they would be proud of,” the Prime Minister wrote on Twitter.

Hundred years on, the United Kingdom is yet to give a full apology for the gruesome attack on unarmed protesters in Amritsar in 1919.

However, British Prime Minister Theresa May had recently said that the United Kingdom “deeply regrets” the 1919 massacre and called it a “shameful scar” on the British-Indian history.

“The tragedy of Jallianwalla Bagh in 1919 is a shameful scar on the British-Indian history. As her Majesty, the Queen said before visiting Jallianwala Bagh 1997, it is a distressing example of our past history with India. We deeply regret what happened and the suffering caused,” May had said at the British Parliament earlier this week.

United we grieve: On the 50th anniversary of the massacre, the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi led a march of thousands of people who laid wreaths at the Jallianwala Bagh memorial in Amritsar | Photo Credit: PIB

The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre ignited the first spark of the Indian freedom movement, which led to the fall of the British empire.

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Today in History : 1857, The first bullet fired against British Empire by Mangal Pandey

Sepoy Mangal Pandey shot the first bullet of 1857 Indian mutiny in the barracks of Barrackpur near Calcutta against British Empire.

This was the starting of the mutiny.

A hundred and ninety-two years ago, on 19 July 1827, India’s first freedom fighter was born. He was the same person, who evoked resentment on a national level, by leading Indians against the British in what was our First War of Independence.

The Sepoy Uprising of 1857.

Born in Nagwa district, Uttar Pradesh, Mangal Pandey’s childhood could be described as mediocre at best.

Lieutenant William Alexander Kerr, 24th Bombay Native Infantry, near Kolapore, July 1857.(Photo Courtesy: Wikipedia)

As a result of his socioeconomic status, he was compelled to join the British East India Company at the age of 22 as a sepoy in the 34th Regiment of the Bengal Native Infantry (BNI).

By that point, it must be remembered that the British had subjugated Indians: farmers lost their land to taxes, artisans were left poverty-stricken after the emergence of British factories, commoner were left to starve. The British hegemony over Indians had become a reality by then. And so, there was an inherent danger in the people of India.

Having reluctantly served the British for some years, Mangal Pandey was left very upset with the arrival of a new type of bullet cartridge used in the Enfield P-53 rifle. The cause for his anger was driven by the ongoing word that the cartridge was greased with animal fat and especially those of pig and cow, which neither Hindus nor Muslims consumed.

For the cover to be removed, the cartridges had to be removed and it was abhorred by both the Hindu and Muslim soldiers in the army. The general word about the British intentionally doing it, evoked even more anger in Pandey. What peaked the discontent was that the Commandant of the 34th Bengal Native Infantry was a well known Christian preacher, who would often put down other faiths in the attempt to convert people of those religions. This added to the larger question regarding the British’s attempts to undermine the traditional Indian society.

A 1912 map showing the centres of the rebellion

While many did tell him that a gradual attack on the British after consolidation would make sense, Pandey felt the need to act immediately. On the 29th of March 1857, he led the fight against the British by doing his best to motivate every person involved. He went on to dominate one officer after another- right from Hughson to Baugh.

“It is for our religion. From biting these (greased) cartridges we will lose our religion”, he told the soldiers.

It is worth noting that despite the known oppression that took place, the compulsion to bite something that (he believed) contained beef, was what triggered his anger. That fact on its own would imply that he placed his Hindu belief system on the highest pedestal, and that is what translated to become the love for his country.

However, before the nation could display its appreciation for the cause, he was betrayed by a compatriot named Shaikh Paltu, who posed himself to be on the same side as Pandey since they lay on the same battalion. Mistaking Paltu’s identity, Pandey had let him get closer, only to find himself being pulled from the back.

Being flanked by Paltu was a challenge for Pandey because even though he was able to drive him away, he was left very tired when faced with a fresh battalion of soldiers, by noon. As a result of there being no room to fight, Pandey felt the need to shoot himself in the chest.

He soon found himself in the military hospital and was killed by the British 10 days before his hanging was sentenced by the military court. Thus, ended the life of whom we call ‘Amar Shaheed Mangal Pandey’.

The word about the rebellion spread everywhere and inspired millions to fight against the British- ranging across different places including Agra, Ambala, Meerut, Delhi. It was the precise uniting factor India had needed in motivation for independence. Many patriots were ignited by Pandey’s sacrifice and love for his country, which was triggered by the regard for his Hindu Dharma and went on to strive for the freedom of their countrymen.

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The Artificial Famine that killed More than 5.5 million people in India

The true history of India includes thousands of atrocities on millions of Indian people  during the British Rule, one among the biggest atrocities includes, creating the artificial famine in India.  Lets shed our light on The Great Famine of India also called as the Southern India famine of 1876–1878 or the Madras famine of 1877.

It began in 1876 after an intense drought resulting in crop failure in the Deccan Plateau. Even though there was plenty of crop and grains stored, it was exported by the British rule which cited Malthusian theory of population control. It affected south and southwestern India (the British presidencies of Madras and Bombay, and the princely states of Mysore and Hyderabad) for a period of two years. In its second year famine also spread northward to some regions of the Central Provinces and the North-Western Provinces, and to a small area in the Punjab.  The famine ultimately covered an area of 670,000 square kilometres (257,000 sq mi) and caused distress to a population totalling 58,500,000. The death toll from this famine is estimated to be in the range of 5.5 million people.

Engraving from The Graphic, October 1877, showing two forsaken children in the Bellary district of the Madras Presidency.

In part, the Great Famine may have been caused by an intense drought resulting in crop failure in the Deccan Plateau. It was part of a larger pattern of drought and crop failure across India, China, South America and parts of Africa caused by an interplay between a strong El Niño and an active Indian Ocean Dipole that led to between 19 and 50 million deaths.

The regular export of grain by the colonial government continued; during the famine the viceroy, Lord Lytton, oversaw the export to England of a record 6.4 million hundredweight (320,000 tons) of wheat, made the region more vulnerable. The cultivation of alternate cash crops, in addition to the commodification of grain, played a significant role in the events.

Grain destined for export stacked on Madras beaches (February 1877).

The famine occurred at a time when the colonial government was attempting to reduce expenses on welfare. Earlier, in the Bihar famine of 1873–74, severe mortality had been avoided by importing rice from Burma. The Government of Bengal and its Lieutenant-Governor, Sir Richard Temple, were criticised for excessive expenditure on charitable relief. Sensitive to any renewed accusations of excess in 1876, Temple, who was now Famine Commissioner for the Government of India, insisted not only on a policy of laissez faire with respect to the trade in grain, but also on stricter standards of qualification for relief and on more meagre relief rations.Two kinds of relief were offered: “relief works” for able-bodied men, women, and working children, and gratuitous (or charitable) relief for small children, the elderly, and the indigent.

Map of the British Indian Empire (1880), showing the different provinces and native states, including those affected by the Great Famine of 1876–1878.

The insistence on more rigorous tests for qualification, however, led to strikes by “relief workers” in the Bombay presidency. In January 1877, Temple reduced the wage for a day’s hard work in the relief camps in Madras and Bombay this ‘Temple wage’ consisted of 450 grams (1 lb) of grain plus one anna for a man, and a slightly reduced amount for a woman or working child, for a “long day of hard labour without shade or rest.” The rationale behind the reduced wage, which was in keeping with a prevailing belief of the time, was that any excessive payment might create ‘dependency’ (or “demoralisation” in contemporaneous usage) among the famine-afflicted population.

Inmates of a relief camp in Madras (during the famine of 1876-1878), by Willoughby Wallace Hooper. Image credit: Wikimedia Commons

Temple’s recommendations were opposed by some officials, including William Digby and the physician W. R. Cornish, Sanitary Commissioner for the Madras Presidency. Cornish argued for a minimum of 680 grams (1.5 lb) of grain and, in addition, supplements of vegetables and protein, especially if the individuals were performing strenuous labour in the relief works.However, Lytton supported Temple, who argued that “everything must be subordinated to the financial consideration of disbursing the smallest sum of money.”

Child born of famine-stricken mother, by Willoughby Wallace Hooper. Image credit: Wikimedia Commons – Age: 3 months, Weight: 3 lbs.

In March 1877 the provincial government of Madras increased the ration halfway towards Cornish’s recommendations, to 570 grams (1.25 lb) of grain and 43 grams (1.5 oz) of protein in the form of daal (pulses). Meanwhile, many more people had succumbed to the famine. In other parts of India, such as the United Provinces, where relief was meagre, the resulting mortality was high. In the second half of 1878, an epidemic of malaria killed many more who were already weakened by malnutrition.

Engraving from The Graphic, October 1877, showing the plight of animals as well as humans in Bellary district

By early 1877, Temple proclaimed that he had put “the famine under control”. Digby noted that “a famine can scarcely be said to be adequately controlled which leaves one-fourth of the people dead.”

People waiting for famine relief in Bangalore. From the Illustrated London News (20 October 1877).

All in all, the Government of India spent Rs. 8 1/30 million in relieving 700 million units (1 unit = relief for 1 person for 1 day) in British India and, in addition, another Rs. 7.2 million in relieving 72 million units in the princely states of Mysore and Hyderabad. Revenue (tax) payments to the amount of Rs. 6 million were either not enforced or postponed until the following year, and charitable donations from Great Britain and the colonies totaled Rs. 8.4 million. However, this cost was minuscule per capita; for example, the expenditure incurred in the Bombay Presidency was less than one-fifth of that in the Bihar famine of 1873–74, which affected a smaller area and did not last as long.

A contemporary print showing the distribution of relief in Bellary, Madras Presidency. From the Illustrated London News (1877).


Famine in Mysore State

Two years before the famine of 1876, heavy rain destroyed ragi crops (a type of millet) in Kolar and Bangalore. Scant rainfall the following year resulted in drying up of lakes, affecting food stock. As a result of the famine, the population of the state decreased by 874,000 (in comparison with the 1871 census).

Sir Richard Temple was sent by the British India Government as Special Famine Commissioner to oversee the relief works of the Mysore government. To deal with the famine, the government of Mysore started relief kitchens. A large number of people journeyed to Bangalore, when relief was available. These people had to work on the Bangalore-Mysore railway line in exchange for food and grains. The Mysore government imported large quantities of grain from the neighbouring British ruled Madras Presidency. Grazing in forests was allowed temporarily, and new tanks were constructed and old tanks repaired. The Dewan of Mysore State, C. V. Rungacharlu, in his Dasara speech estimated the cost to the state at 160 lakhs, with the state incurring a debt of 80 lakhs.

 Famine stricken people during the famine of 1876-78 in Bangalore.

The mortality in the famine was in the range of 5.5 million people. The excessive mortality and the renewed questions of “relief and protection” that were asked in its wake, led directly to the constituting of the Famine Commission of 1880 and to the eventual adoption of the Indian Famine Codes. After the famine, a large number of agricultural labourers and handloom weavers in South India emigrated to British tropical colonies to work as indentured labourers in plantations. The excessive mortality in the famine also neutralized the natural population growth in the Bombay and Madras presidencies during the decade between the first and second censuses of British India in 1871 and 1881 respectively. The famine lives on in the Tamil and other literary traditions. A large number of Kummi folk songs describing this famine have been documented.

The Great Famine had a lasting political impact on events in India. Among the British administrators in India who were unsettled by the official reactions to the famine and, in particular by the stifling of the official debate about the best form of famine relief, were William Wedderburn and A. O. Hume. Less than a decade later, they would found the Indian National Congress and, in turn, influence a generation of Indian nationalists. Among the latter were Dadabhai Naoroji and Romesh Chunder Dutt for whom the Great Famine would become a cornerstone of the economic critique of the British Raj

Note: 5.5 million in British territory. Mortality unknown for princely states. Total famine mortality estimates vary from 6.1 to 10.3 million.

Source: WikiMedia

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National Science Day- C.V Raman’s Nobel-Winning Discovery Celebrated Each 28 Feb

National Science Day is celebrated across India on February 28. Famous Indian scientist Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman or CV Raman discovered the Raman Effect on this day in 1928. For his discovery, Sir CV Raman was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1930. In honour of this discovery and as a mark of tribute to the scientist, National Science Day was marked for the first time on February 28, 1987. For the past 32 years, every 28 February has been celebrated as a remembrance of CV Raman’s contribution to science and the Indian scientific community.

Sir C V Raman pointing to information on a large blackboard as he gives a lecture, 5 August 1958. (Keystone Features/Hulton Archive/Getty Images)

Only two of his associates – K S Krishnan and S C Sirkar – were involved in the work on the Raman Effect, which involves scattering of light.

In his private diaries, K S Krishnan had recorded details of the Raman’s work relating to the discovery of Raman effect covering the period from February 5 to 28, 1928. Details of these diaries were published only after his death. Then, years later a new book on the life and science of S C Sirkar, written by Rajinder Singh, another leading historian of science, brought to light the contribution of Sirkar to the work on Raman Effect.

According to the new book, Sirkar was the first person whom C V Raman asked to evaluate the first ever ‘Raman spectrum’ of benzene.

This year the National Science Day will be celebrated as the International Year of the Periodic Table of chemical elements and the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope will host a two-day exhibition on Thursday at Khodad in Narayangaon, aroun 80 km from Pune.

The GMRT has been organising this exhibition for the past 19 years. It is the world’s largest telescope set up by the National Centre for Radio Astrophysics (NCRA).

What is Raman Effect ?

Raman effect, change in the wavelength of light that occurs when a light beam is deflected by molecules. When a beam of light traverses a dust-free, transparent sample of a chemical compound, a small fraction of the light emerges in directions other than that of the incident (incoming) beam. Most of this scattered light is of unchanged wavelength. A small part, however, has wavelengths different from that of the incident light; its presence is a result of the Raman effect.

The phenomenon is named for Indian physicist Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman, who first published observations of the effect in 1928. (Austrian physicist Adolf Smekal theoretically described the effect in 1923. It was first observed just one week before Raman by Russian physicists Leonid Mandelstam and Grigory Landsberg; however, they did not publish their results until months after Raman.)

Raman scattering is perhaps most easily understandable if the incident light is considered as consisting of particles, or photons (with energy proportional to frequency), that strike the molecules of the sample. Most of the encounters are elastic, and the photons are scattered with unchanged energy and frequency. On some occasions, however, the molecule takes up energy from or gives up energy to the photons, which are thereby scattered with diminished or increased energy, hence with lower or higher frequency. The frequency shifts are thus measures of the amounts of energy involved in the transition between initial and final states of the scattering molecule.

The Raman effect is feeble; for a liquid compound the intensity of the affected light may be only 1/100,000 of that incident beam. The pattern of the Raman lines is characteristic of the particular molecular species, and its intensity is proportional to the number of scattering molecules in the path of the light. Thus, Raman spectra are used in qualitative and quantitative analysis.

The energies corresponding to the Raman frequency shifts are found to be the energies associated with transitions between different rotational and vibrational states of the scattering molecule. Pure rotational shifts are small and difficult to observe, except for those of simple gaseous molecules. In liquids, rotational motions are hindered, and discrete rotational Raman lines are not found. Most Raman work is concerned with vibrational transitions, which give larger shifts observable for gases, liquids, and solids. Gases have low molecular concentration at ordinary pressures and therefore produce very faint Raman effects; thus liquids and solids are more frequently studied.

The observation of the vibrational Raman spectrum of a molecule depends on a change in the molecules.

This year the theme for the National Science Day is: Science for people and people for science. Last year’s theme was “Science and Technology for a sustainable future.”

For famous quotes of Sir CV Raman, please follow this link.

Quotes of Sir C.V Raman, A Nobel laureate and a great Physicist

Awards and Recognition :
Raman was honoured with a large number of honorary doctorates and memberships of scientific societies.

Professor C V Raman was also the first to investigate the harmonic nature of the sound of the Indian drums such as the Tabla and the Mridanga. In 1930, for the first time in its history, an Indian scholar, educated entirely in India has received highest honour in science, the ‘Nobel Prize’ in physics. In 1943, he established the ‘Raman Research Institute’, near Bangalore.

His discovery of the ‘Raman Effect’ made a very distinctive contribution to Physics. He was also conferred the title of ‘Bharat Ratna’ in 1954. The ‘Raman Effect’ was a demonstration of the ‘Collision’ effect of light bullets (Photons) passing through a transparent medium, whether solid, liquid or gaseous. Raman was also awarded the ‘Lenin Peace Prize’ in 1957.

In 1998, the American Chemical Society and Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science recognised Raman’s discovery as an International Historic Chemical Landmark.

India celebrates National Science Day on 28 February of every year to commemorate the discovery of the Raman effect in 1928.Postal stamps featuring Raman were issued in 1971 and 2009.

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Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj and the Evolution of ‘Indian Navy’ (Since 3rd Century BCE )

Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj was the founder of the Maratha Empire in western India. He is considered to be one of the greatest warriors of his time and even today, stories of his exploits are narrated as a part of the folklore. With his valor and great administrative skills, Shivaji carved out an enclave from the declining Adilshahi sultanate of Bijapur. It eventually became the genesis of the Maratha Empire.

After establishing his rule, Shivaji implemented a competent and progressive administration with the help of a disciplined military and well-established administrative set-up. Shivaji is well-known for his innovative military tactics that centered around non-conventional methods leveraging strategic factors like geography, speed, and surprise to defeat his more powerful enemies.

A Painting of Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj

Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj is being considered as the Father of Indian Navy. We are going to discuss more about this on this article.

Before going to the topic, it’s needed to know the History of Indian Navy.

History of Indian Navy is quite old. Lets go through some famous empires in India and their Navy.

Mauryan Empire’s Navy :

The Maurya Empire was a geographically-extensive Iron Age historical power based in Magadha and founded by Chandragupta Maurya which dominated ancient India between 322 and 187 BCE. Comprising the majority of South Asia, the Maurya Empire was centralized by conquering the Indo-Gangetic Plain in the eastern extent of the empire and had its capital city at Pataliputra(modern Patna). The empire was the largest to have ever existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning over 5 million square kilometres (1.9 million square miles) at its zenith under Ashoka.

Sanchi-Stupa, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
Mauryan Empire, Credits : Maps of India.

The earliest known reference to an organisation devoted to ships in ancient India is to the Mauryan Empire from the fourth century BCE. Emperor Chandragupta Maurya’s Prime Minister Kautilya’s Arthashastra devotes a full chapter on the state department of waterways under navadhyaksha (Sanskrit for Superintendent of ships) . The term, nava dvipantaragamanam (Sanskrit for sailing to other lands by ships, i.e. Exploration) appears in this book in addition to appearing in the Sanskrit text, Baudhayana Dharmasastra as the interpretation of the term, Samudrasamyanam.

Not much is known about Maury’s Naval might but the information sure serve a beginning of Indian Naval Power.

Gupta’s Navy:

The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indianempire existing from the mid-to-late 3rd century CE to 590 CE. At its zenith, from approximately 319 to 550 CE, it covered much of the Indian subcontinent. This period is called the Golden Age of India by some historians. The ruling dynasty of the empire was founded by the king Sri Gupta; the most notable rulers of the dynasty were Chandragupta I, Samudragupta, and Chandragupta II alias Vikramaditya. The 5th-century CE Sanskrit poet Kalidasa credits the Guptas with having conquered about twenty-one kingdoms, both in and outside India, including the kingdoms of Parasikas, the Hunas, the Kambojas, tribes located in the west and east Oxus valleys, the Kinnaras, Kiratas, and others.

Gupta’s Empire, Credits : Lumen Learning

Military might of India grew during this age. The Imperial Guptas could have achieved their successes through force of arms with an efficient martial system. Historically, the best accounts of this come not from the Hindus themselves but from Chinese and Western observers. However, a contemporary Indian document, regarded as a military classic of the time, the Siva-Dhanur-veda, offers some insight into the military system of the Guptas.

Queen Kumaradevi and King Chandragupta I: A coin from the period of Indian Emperor Samudragupta, 335-380 CE, depicting his parents, King Chandragupta and Queen Kumaradevi, credits : Lumen Learning

The Guptas also had knowledge of siegecraft, catapults, and other sophisticated war machines.

Samudragupta and Chandragupta II understood the need for combined armed tactics and proper logistical organization. Gupta military success likely stemmed from the concerted use of elephants, armored cavalry, and foot archers in tandem against both Hindu kingdoms and foreign armies invading from the Northwest. The Guptas also maintained a navy, allowing them to control regional waters.

Iron Pillar of Delhi: The Iron Pillar of Delhi, India, erected by Chandragupta II to honor the Hindu god Vishnu, in the 4th century CE. Credits : Lumen Learning

During the reign of Chandragupta II, Gupta empire maintained a large army consisting of 500,000 infantry, 50,000 cavalry, 20,000 charioteers and 10,000 elephants along with a powerful navy with more than 1200 ships. Chandragupta II controlled the whole of the Indian subcontinent; the Gupta empire was the most powerful empire in the world during his reign, at a time when the Roman Empire in the west was in decline.

Chola’s Navy:

The Chola dynasty was one of the longest-ruling dynasties in history. The earliest datable references to this Tamil dynasty are in inscriptions from the 3rd century BCE left by Ashoka, of the Maurya Empire (Ashoka Major Rock Edict No.13). As one of the Three Crowned Kings of Tamilakam, the dynasty continued to govern over varying territory until the 13th century CE.

Chola Emperor, during Rajendra Chola period, Source wiki

The Chola Navy comprised the naval forces of the Chola Empire along with several other naval-arms of the country. The Chola navy played a vital role in the expansion of the Chola Empire, including the conquest of the Ceylon islands and naval raids on Sri Vijaya (present-day Indonesia). The navy grew both in size and status during the Medieval Cholas reign. The Chola Admirals commanded much respect and prestige in the society.

Depiction of the siege of Kedah, the battle between Beemasenan’s Chola naval infantry and the defenders of Kedah fort. source :Wiki

The navy commanders also acted as diplomats in some instances. From 900 to 1100, the navy had grown from a small backwater entity to that of a potent power projection and diplomatic symbol in all of Asia but was gradually reduced in significance when the Cholas fought land battles for subjugating the Chalukyas of Andhra-Kannada area in South India.

The earliest record of Chola naval activity by an external source dates to around the 1st century, the Roman report of Kaveripoompattinam (presently known as Poombuhar) as Haverpoum and a description of how the Trade vessels were escorted by the King’s fleet to the estuary as it was a natural harbor in the mouth of the river Kaveri.

Little archeological evidence exists of the maritime activities of this era, except some excavated wooden plaques depicting naval engagements in the vicinity of the old city (See Poompuhar for more details). However, much insight into the naval activities of the Cholas has been gathered from Periplus of the Erythrean Sea. In this work, the unknown merchant describes the activity of escort-ships assigned to the merchant vessels with valuable cargo. These early naval ships had some sort of a rudimentary flame-thrower and or a catapult type weapon.

Colandia, the great ships which was used by Early Cholas.[clarification needed] By this they sailed to pacific islands from Kaveripatnam(as center). At that time, Pattinathu Pillai is the chief of the Chola’s Navy.

Many other Indian Empires too had good Indian navy during their time.

Maratha’s Navy :

The Maratha Empire is credited with laying the foundation of the Indian Navy and bringing about considerable changes in naval warfare by introducing a blue-water navy.

Maratha Empire, Credits : Cultural India

The Maratha Empire is also credited for developing many important cities like Pune, Baroda, and Indore. From its inception in 1674, the Marathas established a Naval force, consisting of cannons mounted on ships.

Mahrathas attacking the sloop ‘Aurora’, of the Bombay Marine, 1812;Credits : Wiki

The dominance of the Maratha Navy started with the ascent of Kanhoji Angre as the Darya-Saranga by the Maratha chief of Satara. Under that authority, he was admiral of the Western coast of India from Bombay to Vingoria (now Vengurla) in the present day state of Maharashtra, except for Janjira which was affiliated with the Mughal Empire.

A portrait of Admiral Kanhoji Angre, Source : Wiki

The Marathas established watch posts on the Andaman Islands and are credited with attaching those islands to India. He attacked English, Dutch and Portuguese ships which were moving to and from East Indies. Until his death in 1729, he repeatedly attacked the colonial powers of Britain and Portugal, capturing numerous vessels of the British East India Company and extracting ransom for their return.

A diorama showing Maratha naval tactics, on display at the National Museum, New Delhi, Source : Wiki

On 29 November 1721, a joint attempt by the Portuguese Viceroy Francisco José de Sampaio e Castro and the British General Robert Cowan to humble Kanhoji failed miserably. Their combined fleet consisted of 6,000 soldiers in no less than four Man-of-war besides other ships led by Captain Thomas Mathews of the Bombay Marine failed miserably. Aided by Maratha naval commanders Mendhaji Bhatkar and Mainak Bhandari, Kanhoji continued to harass and plunder the European ships until his death in 1729.

The ‘Pal’ was a three masted Maratha man-of-war with guns peeping on the broadsides.

Most significantly,Battle of Colachel:

The Battle of Colachel (or Battle of Kulachal) was fought on 10 August 1741 [O.S. 31 July 1741) between forces of the Indian kingdom of Travancore and the Dutch East India Company, during the Travancore-Dutch War. The Dutch never recovered from the defeat and no longer posed a large colonial threat to India, assisting the British East India Company’s eventual rise to dominance on the Indian subcontinent.

Now, Why Shivaji is known as Father of Indian Navy…??

Shivaji built a strong naval presence across long coast of Konkan and Goa to protect sea trade, to protect the lands from sack of prosperity of subjects from coastal raids, plunder and destruction by Arabs, Portuguese, British, Abyssinians and pirates. Shivaji built ships in towns such as Kalyan, Bhivandi, and Goa for building fighting navy as well as trade. He also built a number of sea forts and bases for repair, storage and shelter. Shivaji fought many lengthy battles with Siddis of Janjira on coastline. The fleet grew to reportedly 160 to 700 merchant, support and fighting vessels. He started trading with foreigners on his own after possession of eight or nine ports in the Deccan. Shivaji’s admiral Kanhoji Angre is often said to be the “Father of Indian Navy”

The Sindhudurg Fort near the Maharashtra-Goa border, one of the several naval fortifications built by the Maratha Navy Credits : Wiki

Maratha Navy was strong and defended India against many foreign forces:

A depiction of a British naval attack in 1755 against the Maratha Navy at Suvarnadurg. Credits Wiki

Most important reason is that people can relate to the part of history when Maratha existed. Period of Mauryas and Guptas are long gone. Forget about dates even the years are not clear. When we talk about their glory we refer to history written by foreign sources. No doubt India saw its golden age at the time of Guptas and Muryas but that age is long gone. This is not the case with Maratha. We can relate to this part of the history.

Portrait of Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj at The British Museum. Credits : The British Museum

Raja Mudra/ Emblem of Shivaji Maharaj:

प्रतिपदेचा चन्द्र जसा वाढत जातो, आणि सरे विश्व त्याला जसे वंदन करते, तशीच तशीच ही मुद्रा व् तिचा लौकिक वाढत जाईल…..!
The glory of this Mudra of Shahaji’s son Shivaji (Maharaj ) will grow like the first day moon .It will be worshiped by the world & it will shine only for well being of people.

Its a different thing that some people treat the glory of Maratha as glory of Marathas only and not of whole India.

The modern Indian navy is indeed an extension of the navy created by Great Marathas and hence Shivaji is referred as Father of Indian Navy.

Demise and Legacy:

Shivaji died at the age of 52 on April 3, 1680, at the Raigad Fort, after suffering from a bout of dysentery. A conflict of succession arose after his death between his eldest son Sambhaji and his third wife Soyrabai on behalf of her 10-year old son Rajaram. Sambhaji dethroned the young Rajaram and ascended the throne himself on June 20, 1680.the Mughal-Maratha conflicts continued after Shivaji’s death and the Maratha glory declined greatly. However it was reclaimed by young Madhavrao Peshwa who reclaimed Maratha glory and established his authority over North India.

Remembering the great Emperor and a warrior of Maratha Kingdom on his birth anniversary.

{Today, (Feburary 19th) is the birth anniversary of Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj.}

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Great works of Raja Ravi Varma – legendary Indian painter of all time

Raja Ravi Varma was an observed Indian painter and craftsman. He is considered among the best painters in the historical backdrop of Indian workmanship for various tasteful and more extensive social reasons. Initially, his works are held to be among the best instances of the combination of European systems with a simply Indian reasonableness. While proceeding with the convention and feel of Indian workmanship, his artworks utilized the most recent European scholastic craftsmanship procedures of the day.

Besides, he was outstanding for making moderate lithographs of his works of art accessible to people in general, which extraordinarily improved his range and impact as a painter and open figure. In reality, his lithographs expanded the contribution of average citizens with expressive arts and characterized aesthetic tastes among ordinary citizens for quite a few years. Specifically, his portrayals of Hindu gods and scenes from the sagas and Puranas have gotten significant acknowledgment from people in general and are found, regularly as objects of love, over the length and expansiveness of India.

Raja Ravi Varma was born on 29th April 1848, in Kilimanoor, a small town of Kerala, India. He is well known for his unique oil paintings, mainly from the epics of Mahabharata and Ramayana. Raja Ravi Varma managed to accomplish a beautiful union of the Indian traditions with the techniques of European academic art.

Life history: Raja Ravi Varma was born at Ravi Varma Koil Thampuran of Kilimanoor palace in the erstwhile princely state of Travancore in Kerala. His father Ezhumavail Neelakanthan Bhattatiripad was an accomplished scholar, and his mother Umayamba Thampuratti was a poet and writer whose work Parvati Swayamvaram would be published by Raja Ravi Varma after her death. His siblings were C. Goda Varma, C. Raja Raja Varma and Mangala Bayi Thampuratti, who was also a painter. Raja Ravi Varma was married to Pururuttathi Nal Bhageerathi Amma Thampuran (Kochu Pangi) of the Royal House of Mavelikara and they had two sons and two daughters. Their eldest son, Kerala Varma, born in 1876 went missing in 1912 and was never heard from again. Their second son was Rama Varma, an artist who studied at the JJ School of Arts, Mumbai, married to Srimathi Gowri Kunjamma, sister of Dewan PGN Unnithan.

Raja Ravi Varma’s elder daughter, Ayilyam Nal Mahaprabha Thampuratti, appears in two of his prominent paintings and was mother of Maharani Sethu Lakshmi Bayi of Travancore. He had another daughter, Thiruvadira Nal Kochukunji Thampuratti, grandmother of Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma Maharajah. His descendants comprise the Mavelikara Royal house while two of his granddaughters, including the said Sethu Lakshmi Bayi, were adopted to the Travancore Royal Family, the cousin family of the Mavelikara House, to which lineage the present Travancore Maharajah Uthradom Thirunal Marthanda Varma belongs. Well known among his descendants are writer Shreekumar Varma (Prince Punardam Thirunal), artists Rukmini Varma (Princess Bharani Thirunal) and Jay Varma, classical musician Aswathi Thirunal Rama Varma and others.

At a young age he secured the patronage of HH Maharajah Ayilyam Thirunal of Travancore, a relative, and began formal training thereafter. Raja Ravi Varma received widespread acclaim after he won an award for an exhibition of his paintings at Vienna in 1873.He travelled throughout India in search of subjects. He often modeled Hindu Goddesses on South Indian women, whom he considered beautiful. Ravi Varma is particularly noted for his paintings depicting episodes from the story of Dushyanta and Shakuntala, and Nala and Damayanti, from the Mahabharata. Ravi Varma’s representation of mythological characters has become a part of the Indian imagination of the epics. He is often criticized for being too showy and sentimental in his style. However his work remains very popular in India.

Raja Ravi Varma passed away on October 2, 1906. Major paintings of Raja Ravi Varma Village Belle Lady Lost in Thought Damayanti Talking to a Swan The Orchestra Arjuna and Subhadra Lady with lamp The broken Swarbat Player Shakuntala Lord Krishna as Ambassador Jatayu, a bird devotee of Lord Rama is mauled by Ravana Victory of Indrajit A Family of Beggars A Lady Playing Swarbat Lady Giving Alms at the Temple Lord Rama Conquers Varuna Nair Woman Romancing Couple Draupadi Dreading to Meet Kichaka Shantanu and Matsyagandha Shakuntala Composing a Love Letter to King Dushyanta Girl in Sage Kanwa’s Hermitage (Rishi-Kanya)

Posting some of his great paintings on this post

Portrait of the courtesan Vasanthasena, famously depicted in Śūdraka’s Sankrit play Mṛcchakaṭika

Krishnaleela Painting by Raja Ravi Varma

Krishnaleela by Raja Ravi Varma
The Great Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj
Bharatha paing with Lions Cubs
Goddess Kali
Photo of Raja Ravi Varma
Lady Going for Pooja
Portrait of Maharana Raj Singh

The best works of Raja Ravi Varma is with the Sanskrit play, The Recognition of Shakuntala

Shakuntala, also known as The Recognition of Shakuntala, The Sign of Shakuntala, and many other is a Sanskrit play by the ancient Indian poet Kālidāsa, dramatizing the story of Shakuntala told in the epic Mahabharata. It is considered to be the best of Kālidāsa’s works002E Its date is uncertain, but Kālidāsa is often placed in the period between the 1st century BCE and 4th century CE.

The protagonist is Shakuntala, daughter of the sage Vishwamitra and the apsara Menaka. Abandoned at birth by her parents, Shakuntala is reared in the secluded hermitage of the sage Kanva, and grows up a comely but innocent maiden.

While Kanva and the other elders of the hermitage are away on a pilgrimage, Dushyanta, king of Hastinapura, comes hunting in the forest and chances upon the hermitage. He is captivated by Shakuntala, courts her in royal style, and marries her. He then has to leave to take care of affairs in the capital. She is given a ring by the king, to be presented to him when she appears in his court. She can then claim her place as queen.

The anger-prone sage Durvasa arrives when Shakuntala is lost in her fantasies, so that when she fails to attend to him, he curses her by bewitching Dushyanta into forgetting her existence. The only cure is for Shakuntala to show him the signet ring that he gave her.

She later travels to meet him, and has to cross a river. The ring is lost when it slips off her hand when she dips her hand in the water playfully. On arrival the king refuses to acknowledge her. Shakuntala is abandoned by her companions, who return to the hermitage.

Fortunately, the ring is discovered by a fisherman in the belly of a fish, and Dushyanta realises his mistake – too late. The newly wise Dushyanta defeats an army of Asuras, and is rewarded by Indra with a journey through heaven. Returned to Earth years later, Dushyanta finds Shakuntala and their son by chance, and recognizes them.

Lad giving alms

In other versions, especially the one found in the Mahabharata, Shakuntala is not reunited until her son Bharata is born, and found by the king playing with lion cubs. Dushyanta enquires about his parents to young Bharata and finds out that Bharata is indeed his son. Bharata is an ancestor of the lineages of the Kauravas and Pandavas, who fought the epic war of the Mahabharata It is after this Bharata that India was given the name “Bharatavarsha”, the ‘Land of Bharata’

Birth of Shakuntala
Dhamayanthi and Swan
shakunthala patralekhana
St Gregorios
susheela (modesty)
Rai Pannalal Mehta
Self Portrait of Raja Ravi Varma
keechaka and sairandri

Harihara Bheti [Hari(Vishnu) and Hara(Shiva) meeting] Vrishabha kunjaram

Lady Juggler
Maharani Chimanbai portrait
Grand Mom with her GrandSon
Damayanti Vanavasa
Sakunthala writing A letter

Rustic oil extractor
Shani Deva
Gopikas Complaining on little Krishna to His mother Yashoda

kerala girl during her Bath
Lord Shiva and Parvathi Devi seating with their son Ganesha and his vehicle Nandi
Maharaja Sayaji Rao
Tanjore Madhava Rao
mityagarvist or manini
Chamarajendra Wadiyar
Portrait of an Indian Gentleman
Goddess Ambika
Decking the bride
Sri Audi Shankaracharya along with his disciples
Raja Ravi Varma’s daughter Mahaprabha with one of her sons
Ravana killing the Jatayu, while jatayu is trying to save her from the demon king Ravana

The Story of Ganga :

Survanshi king Dilipa’s son Bhagirath was performing a very harsh penance in the Himalayas. He wanted to bring river Ganga to earth from the heaven because only she could bestow nirvana to Bhagirath’s ancestors who were burnt to ashes because of sage Kapil’s curse.

After many years, Bhagirath was able to please Ganga. He heard the whispers from the heaven above “I am ready to come to earth as per your wishes but who will be able to stop my mighty tides and flow. I might sweep away the whole planet and end up in Patal Lok.”

Bhgirath was perplexed, he asked Ganga to provide a solution. Ganga replied that only Lord Shiva has the ability and valor to channelize her. If he agrees to keep me on his head, things will work out in favor of everyone. Hearing this, Bhagirath started praying to Lord Shiva. Pleased by the penance, Shiva agreed to let Ganga flow from his hair.

It was on the day of Dussehra when Shiva decided that it is time to fulfill his promise. He untied his hair and started looking at the sky without blinking his eyes. Ganga started flowing from the heavens and landed on Shiva’s head…not a single drop of water touched the earth.

The river got tangled in Shiva’s hair.

Answering Bhagirath’s prayers, Shiva took a strand of his hair and from there originated the Ganga that we know today. This place is known as Gangotri now and since Ganga came out of Shiva’s jata (hair), she is also known as Jatashankari.

However while flowing, Ganga demolished the ashram of sage Jahna, who got angry and stopped her right there. On Bhagirath’s appeal he later freed her that is why Ganga is also known as Jahnavi.

Ganga reached sage Kapil’s ashram where Bhagirath’s ancestors were burnt to ashes and liberated them so they could rest in peace. From there she gushed into Bay of Bengal, it is known as GangaSagar.

Sage Bhagiratha Bringing Ganga to Earth
Portrait of The Great Hindu Ruler, Maharana Pratap
Nizam of Hyderabad
Girl from malabar playing a musical instrument
King bharath meeting Lord Rama During his Vanavas
shakunthala and dushyantha
Hamsa Damayanthi
Reclining Woman

Looking into the Mirror
Goddess Saraswathi
Kaliyamardhana – Sri Krishna Dancing over the Snake Kaliya
Woman Holding a Fruit
Bharani Thirunal Lakshmi Bai (Varma’s sister-in-law)
Lanka Dhahan – Lord Hanuman sets lanka on Fire
The Royal Marriage
Lord Vishnu with s consorts Sri Devi and Bhumi Devi
Lord Ampthill
Lord Narayana with his consorts Sri Devi and Bhu Devi seated on Sesha Nag at Milky Ocean.
simhaka & sairandari
Goddess Lakshmi
Kerala Girl After Bath
Lord Vishnu saving 4 Vedas from the Demon king with his Matya Avata.
Maharaja Fateh Singh
Bharani Thirunal Rani Parvathi Bai
Disappointing News
Arjuna and Subhadra
lord Shiva and Parvathi as Kirat

lady near well, taking out the water out
Prince Fateh Singh Rao
Moolam Thirunal Rama Varma
Shankar Bhilli
Shanmukha with his consorts (Lord Kumara Swamy)
Historic Meeting of a local king with Foreign Merchants
Lord Vamana with Bali Chartavarthi
Rani of Kurupam
shantanu and satyavati
Sita Lakshmana, Bharatha, Shatrughna, Hanuman along with Sri Rama
Lady with Veena

arjuna and subhadra
woman in thought
Sri Rama Giving life for Ahalya

Lord Hanuman bringing the Sanjeevini Mountain to save Lakshmana during the Ramayana War
Goddess Saraswathi
Death of Karna
NalaDamayanti (Nala leaving Damayanthi)
Ashoka vanasta Seetha
Yashoda and Sri Krishna

Photo Credits to RaviVarma.Org

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The man from future, who described the modern smart phone in 1926

Nikola Tesla described the modern smartphone — in 1926

Thanks to social media revolution, now a days we got to hear more about this great Man Nikola Tesla and his research work.

Some of his thoughts clearly show us how innovative, imaginative he was. The ‘inspiration’ Still pushes many around the world to work and to give life for his thoughts.

In an interview published in Collier’s magazine in 1926, Nikola Tesla, then in the twilight of his career, made some predictions about the future that included electric airplane flights “from New York to Europe in a few hours”, more frequent earthquakes, and temperate zones becoming cooler or warmer. He predicted that we would be communicating wirelessly with each other with devices that fit comfortably into a pocket.

“When wireless is perfectly applied the whole earth will be converted into a huge brain, which in fact it is, all things being particles of a real and rhythmic whole. We shall be able to communicate with one another instantly, irrespective of distance. Not only this, but through television and telephony we shall see and hear one another as perfectly as though we were face to face, despite intervening distances of thousands of miles; and the instruments through which we shall be able to do his will be amazingly simple compared with our present telephone. A man will be able to carry one in his vest pocket.”

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‘That’ Scary Friday in History

Friday the 13th is considered an unlucky day in Western superstition. It occurs when the 13th day of the month in the Gregorian calendar falls on a Friday.

The superstition surrounding this day may have arisen in the Middle Ages, “originating from the story of Jesus’ last supper and crucifixion” in which there were 13 individuals present in the Upper Room on the 13th of Nisan Maundy Thursday, the night before his death on Good Friday.

While there is evidence of both Friday and the number 13 being considered unlucky, there is no record of the two items being referred to as especially unlucky in conjunction before the 19th century.

The Last Supper. Artist: Juanes, Juan de (c. 1507-1579) The Last Supper. Found in the collection of Museo del Prado, Madrid. (Photo by Fine Art Images/Heritage Images/Getty Images)

An early documented reference in English occurs in Henry Sutherland Edwards’ 1869 biography of Gioachino Rossini, who died on a Friday 13th.

A suggested origin of the superstition—Friday, 13 October 1307, the date Philip IV of France arrested hundreds of the Knights Templar—may not have been formulated until the 20th century. It is mentioned in the 1955 Maurice Druon historical novel The Iron King (Le Roi de fer), John J.

Robinson’s 1989 work Born in Blood: The Lost Secrets of Freemasonry, Dan Brown’s 2003 novel The Da Vinci Code and Steve Berry’s The Templar Legacy (2006).

According to the Stress Management Center and Phobia Institute in Asheville, North Carolina, an estimated 17 to 21 million people in the United States are affected by a fear of this day, making it the most feared day and date in history. Some people are so paralyzed by fear that they avoid their normal routines in doing business, taking flights or even getting out of bed. “It’s been estimated that [US]$800 or $900 million is lost in business on this day”

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Martin Luther King Jr – The Man Who Fought for Equal Rights

“The ultimate measure of a man is not where he stands in moments of comfort and convenience, but where he stands at times of challenge and controversy.”

Martin Luther King Jr. was the most important voice of the American civil rights movement, which worked for equal rights for all.

He was famous for using nonviolent resistance to overcome injustice, and he never got tired of trying to end segregation laws (laws that prevented blacks from entering certain places, such as restaurants, hotels, and public schools).

He also did all he could to make people realize that “all men are created equal.” Because of his great work, in 1964 King received the Nobel Peace Prize — the youngest person ever to receive this high honor. King was also a Baptist minister.

King led the 1955 Montgomery bus boycottand in 1957 became the first president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference(SCLC). With the SCLC, he led an unsuccessful 1962 struggle against segregation in Albany, Georgia, and helped organize the nonviolent 1963 protests in Birmingham, Alabama. He also helped organize the 1963 March on Washington, where he delivered his famous “I Have a Dream” speech.

On October 14, 1964, King won the Nobel Peace Prize for combating racial inequalitythrough nonviolent resistance. In 1965, he helped organize the Selma to Montgomery marches. The following year, he and the SCLC took the movement north to Chicago to work on segregated housing. In his final years, he expanded his focus to include opposition towards poverty and the Vietnam War. He alienated many of his liberal allies with a 1967 speech titled “Beyond Vietnam”. J. Edgar

Hoover considered him a radical and made him an object of the FBI’s COINTELPRO from 1963 on. FBI agents investigated him for possible communist ties, recorded his extramarital liaisons and reported on them to government officials, and on one occasion mailed King a threatening anonymous letter, which he interpreted as an attempt to make him commit suicide.

In 1968, King was planning a national occupation of Washington, D.C., to be called the Poor People’s Campaign, when he was assassinated on April 4 in Memphis, Tennessee. His death was followed by riots in many U.S. cities. Allegations that James Earl Ray, the man convicted and imprisoned of killing King, had been framed or acted in concert with government agents persisted for decades after the shooting. Sentenced to 99 years in prison for King’s murder, effectively a life sentence as Ray was 41 at the time of conviction, Ray served 29 years of his sentence and died from hepatitis in 1998 while in prison.

King was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom and the Congressional Gold Medal. Martin Luther King Jr. Day was established as a holiday in numerous cities and states beginning in 1971; the holiday was enacted at the federal level by legislation signed by President Ronald Reaganin 1986. Hundreds of streets in the U.S. have been renamed in his honor, and a county in Washington State was also rededicated for him. The Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., was dedicated in 2011.


“I have a Dream”

The “I Have a Dream” speech by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was delivered during the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. He gave the speech at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C.; this speech expresses King’s notorious hope for America and the need for change. He opens the speech by stating how happy he is to be with the marchers, and emphasizes the historical significance of their march by calling it “the greatest demonstration for freedom in the history of our nation.”

He talks about Abraham Lincoln signing the Emancipation Proclamation one hundred years before the march. He calls that proclamation “a joyous daybreak to end the long night of their captivity,” where “their” refers to those who were enslaved. King then comes to the problems faced by African Americans in 1963, saying that one hundred years later, they still are not free. Instead, they are “sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination.” He also discusses the poverty endured by black Americans. King talks about when the founders of the nation (“the architects of our republic”) wrote the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence.

He says they were writing a promissory note to every American, that all men were guaranteed the unalienable rights of life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness, and that this included black men as well as white. He states that America defaulted on that check where black citizens are concerned by denying them those rights. “America has given the Negro people a bad check, a check which has come back marked insufficient funds,” he says.

King then adopts a more hopeful tone by adding that the “bank of justice” is not bankrupt. He also states that there is urgency in their cause: “This is no time to engage in the luxury of cooling off or to take the tranquilizing drug of gradualism.” He uses the seasons as a metaphor to describe this urgency by saying that the legitimate discontent of African Americans is a “sweltering summer,” and that freedom and equality will be an “invigorating autumn.” He also promises that this protest is not going away. It’s not about voicing grievances and then going back to the status quo: “The whirlwinds of revolt will continue to shake the foundations of our nation until the bright day of justice emerges,” he states. King then cautions his people not to commit any wrongful deeds. He says, “Let us not seek to satisfy our thirst for freedom by drinking from the cup of bitterness and hatred.” This is a crucially important sentiment, as King’s leadership was defined by civil disobedience, not violence. He proved that real legal change could be made without resorting to violence. Though there was much violence during the Civil Rights movement, he was always for peace, and urged others to protest peacefully, what he calls in his speech “the high plane of dignity and discipline.” He also stresses the importance of recognizing white people who want to protest for this same cause—those allies that are necessary to its success. King provides some specific goals. He says they can’t stop marching so long as they suffer police brutality, so long as they’re turned away from hotels, so long as they’re confined to ghettos, so long as they’re subject to segregation, and so long as they do not have the right to vote. He then recognizes the struggles that many of the marchers have already endured, and asks them to undertake that struggle again, and to have hope that their situation can and will change.

Then comes the most famous part of this speech, for which it is titled. King says his dream is “deeply rooted in the American dream.” This reinforces the protestors’ rights to equality in America. He says he dreams that “the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood.” This emphasizes the need for black and white Americans to work together.

Central to the message of this speech, and the Civil Rights movement more generally, is this line: “I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.” He talks about the importance of faith, and that “all flesh shall see [the glory of the Lord] together.” That faith, he says, will help them in the struggles they’ve faced, the struggles they still face, and those struggles yet to come as they peacefully fight for liberty and equality. King then uses a line from the song, “My Country ‘Tis of Thee”: “This will be the day, this will be the day when all of God’s children will be able to sing with new meaning: ‘My country, ‘tis of thee, sweet land of liberty, of thee I sing. Land where my fathers died, land of the pilgrim’s pride, from every mountainside, let freedom ring!’” Only by realizing this as truth, King says, can America become a great nation.

He begins the next section by mentioning mountainsides throughout the country, repeating “Let freedom ring.” King closes the speech with another iconic line: “When all of God’s children, black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing the words of the old Negro spiritual: ‘Free at last! Free at last! Thank God Almighty, we are free at last!’”

He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee, when he was just 39 years old. His birthday is now observed as a national holiday on the third Monday in January.

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Great Gama Wrestler, who got Bruce Lee as his follower

This article is about a Gama wrestler, who got Bruce Lee as his follower.

The “Great” Gama (born 22 May 1878 (India)– 23 May 1960(Pakistan)) also known as “Gama Pehalwan” ,Ghulam Muhammad.

Born in Kashmir, he was awarded the Indian version of the World Heavyweight Championship on 15 October 1910. Undefeated in a career spanning more than 52 years, he is considered one of the greatest wrestlers of all time. After Independence in 1947, Gama moved to the newly created state of Pakistan.

Gama’s daily training consisted of grappling with forty of his fellow wrestlers in the court. He used to do five thousand Baithaks (squats) and three thousand Dands (push ups).Gama’s daily diet was 4 gallons (15 litres) of milk, a pound and a half of crushed almond paste made into a tonic drink along with fruit juice and other ingredients to promote good digestion. This high protein and high energy diet helped him accumulate muscle mass.

In London, Gama issued a challenge that he could throw any three wrestlers in thirty minutes of any weight class. This announcement however was seen as a bluff by the wrestlers and their wrestling promoter R. B. Benjamin. For a long time no one came forward to accept the challenge. To break the ice, Gama presented another challenge to specific heavy weight wrestlers. He challenged Stanislaus Zbyszko and Frank Gotch, either he would beat them or pay them the prize money and go home. The first professional wrestler to take his challenge was the American Benjamin Roller. In the bout, Gama pinned Roller in 1 minute 40 seconds the first time, and in 9 minutes 10 seconds the other. On the second day, he defeated 12 wrestlers and thus gained entry to official tournament.

Bruce Lee was an avid follower of Gama’s training routine. Lee read articles about Gama and how he employed his exercises to build his legendary strength for wrestling, and Lee quickly incorporated them into his own routine. The training routines Lee used included “the cat stretch”, “the squat” (known as “baithak”), and also known as the “deep-knee bend.

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