Surgical Strikes on Space : Mission Shakti, India successfully shoots down satellite in Space : ISRO ASAT Test

India has become the fourth nation after the US, Russia and China that has the capability to launch missiles to destroy satellites in low-Earth orbit. With the successful test-launch of the anti-satellite (ASAT) missile and destruction of the target today, Prime Minister Narendra Modi in a televised national address said India has crossed an important threshold in demonstrating its capability to defend its space assets.

First photos of the ASAT missile tested today against an Indian LEO satellite.

The missile clearly indicates a combination of the PDV upper stage and the Agni-4 booster.

This would be akin to India conducting a surgical strike in space, say scientists.

India had 48 orbiting satellites till recently – the largest such constellation in the Indo-Pacific region. They need to be protected as these are “sitting ducks”, according to experts. Today’s Mission Shakti showed that India was able to actively kill a satellite orbiting at an altitude of 300 kilometres.

which was the Target Satellite?

While PM Modi did not mention the name of the ‘target’ satellite, this was possibly the satellite called Microsat-R which was launched at an altitude of 277 km by a Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) on January 24 this year. The satellite weighed about 740 kilograms.
During its launch, Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) Chairman K Sivan had told that the satellite was for defence research as reported by NDTV.

The Indian PSLV rocket that launched Microsat-R in January.

India has had the capability to conduct anti-satellite missile tests for at least 10 years, said a senior scientist of the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) who asked not to be named as reported by NDTV.

A man watches Prime Minister Modi addressing to the nation, on TV screens inside a showroom in Mumbai [Francis Mascarenhas/Reuters]

Why It’s a big challenge to hit the target?

Bringing down a satellite in high altitude is not easy since the satellite would have been traveling at a velocity of hundreds of kilometres per hour; to accurately target such a small speck is a big challenge. It is like shooting a bullet at another bullet from a distance of 300 km.


Will it create space debris?

Nations worry that such tests will cause space debris that poses problems for other satellites. There was much criticism of an ASAT missile test by China in 2007 as it scattered hundreds of pieces of space debris.

India’s test done at an altitude of 300 km may not leave space debris for too long, said G Madhavan Nair, former chairman of ISRO.

In 2012, when India conducted its first test of the Agni-5 missile from Dr Abdul Kalam Island, formerly Wheeler Island, the country has had a capability to kill satellites. The Agni-5 is an inter-continental ballistic missile with a range of over 5,000 km and the then chef of DRDO, VK Saraswat, had confirmed that it can be used both to launch satellites and bring down satellites if required in times of emergency.

In all probability, India has used a new missile system that can target fast-moving satellites and bring them down. India had already demonstrated the capability by launching missile interception tests where an incoming missile was brought down in exo-atmospheric conditions.


India had anti-satellite missile capability in 2007, but no political will: Ex-ISRO chairman

Former ISRO chairman G Madhavan Nair said on Wednesday that India had the anti-satellite missile capability more than a decade ago but there was no political will at the time to demonstrate it.

He said when China shot down an ageing weather satellite by launching a missile in 2007, India had the technology to undertake a similar mission.
“…now (Prime Minister Narendra) Modiji has taken the initiative and he had the political will and courage to say that we will do this. We have now demonstrated this to whole world,” Nair said, as reported by  PTI.

He had headed the ISRO (Indian Space Research Organisation), Space Commission and was Secretary in the Department of Space from 2003 to 2009.

Asked if India could have demonstrated the anti-satellite missile capability in 2007 itself, Nair said “certainly”, but it could not be done due to absence of “political decision” to go ahead with it at that time.

“Now, Modiji has courageously taken the decision,” he said.
The prime minister on Wednesday announced India had demonstrated the capability by shooting down a live satellite, describing it as a rare achievement that puts the country in an exclusive club of space superpowers.

On one hand the whole country is celebrating this achievement, on the other hand opposition is trying to politicize the events as the General Elections are approaching

Congress president Rahul Gandhi termed it as “Theatre”, Mamata Banerjee called it “limitless drama” and Samajwadi Party chief Akhilesh Yadav went a step ahead and stated that “China has done this before us”. Moreover, Former Defence Minister under the UPA government AK Antony, who served the position from 2006-2014, said that he was not informed about A-SAT operation.
As reported by Republic TV, former Defence Minister under the UPA government AK Antony, who held the post between 2006 and 2014, said that he was not informed of the ‘Mission Shakti’ during that time.

“I was not told by anybody about it. I was not told it started,” the former Defence Minister under UPA government said.
On being questioned about the claims made by senior Congress leader Mallikarjun Kharge saying that the mission was ready in 2012 but the scientists could not test it during that (2012-2013) time, he reiterated saying that he was not informed about the mission by the then government. AK Antony further refused to comment about Kharge’s statement, adding that he did not want to politicise the matter.

“Nobody told me if we were ready for this test under UPA. You can ask the Defence Secretary and check the records. I wasn’t told about this. I don’t want to politicise it, I wasn’t aware of the space warfare programme,” he added on being questioned about Kharge’s claims.
Responding on India’s remarkable achievement of becoming a space superpower after the successful completion of ‘Mission Shakti’ under PM Modi’s leadership, senior Congress leader Mallikarjun Kharge had claimed that the Mission was ready during the UPA tenure as well. However, they could not go forward with it due to some reasons, which he did not disclose.

“This was ready in 2012 but could not be used at that time. It was ready that time only but now it is being tested. I can only say that the people who were involved during the making of this, I am thankful to them,” Kharge had said.

Antony’s remarks come in contradiction to the disclosure made by VK Saraswat, who was the DRDO chief during the UPA government, saying that India was ready to launch the mission during that time, however, the UPA government had blocked the Mission. Earlier, in an exclusive interview with Republic TV, former DRDO chief VK Saraswat had revealed that in 2012 and 2013, the UPA government had blocked ‘Mission Shakti’ even though the DRDO was ready with the necessary steps.

“We had already complete the stimulation process. We wanted to combine the capabilities of our Ballistic missile system and the developed capabilities of AGNI program to get results in the same direction. However, we still had to develop certain technology for which we wanted resources and permission. But no such permission was granted to us during 2012-13 and even 2014. But under the leadership of PM Modi and National Security Advisor Ajit Doval, we were able to get all the required permission. The DRDO set the integration, realisation and demonstration,” VK Saraswat said.

Union Minister Arun Jaitley hit back at the opposition for what he called “clerical objections”, pointing out that India’s nuclear programme was on 365 days, regardless of elections. Mission Shakti, he said, “shows that India today is in safe hands”.

Anti-satellite weapons are considered an ultimate weapon since it can easily cripple a country as the global economy is so heavily dependent on satellites, from running banks and ATMs to communication links.

For the Indian Space Research Organisation, the year 2019 is significant in many counts. 2019 will witness some crucial preparations to hold the first unmanned (without astronaut) mission of Gaganyaan, slated to be held in December 2020 and the second unmanned mission in July 2021, which will be followed by the first Gaganyaan mission with astronauts in December 2021. Further, the year marks the 100th birth anniversary of its visionary leader Dr Vikram Sarabhai and the 50th year of its first successful test flight of an Indigenous Sounding Rocket RH-75 from Thumba, using in-house developed composite solid propellant.

A landmark achievement in the history of the ISRO and the premier institution then contributed significantly towards enabling the country to fulfil the vision of harnessing space technology for national development from this strong edifice of composite solid propellant technology, a major breakthrough which still helps the R&D institution to hold its untiring pursuit of space research and planetary exploration.

The composite solid propellant for the sounding rocket was named ‘Mrinal’, reportedly after Mrinalini Sarabhai, the classical dancer and wife of Vikram Sarabhai. It was used to launch the sounding rocket, designated as Dynamic Test Vehicle, DTV-75, on February 21, 1969, heralding the development of indigenous solid propellant technology in the country. Sounding rockets are experimental rockets, carrying a scientific payload for conducting research during suborbital flight.

It was under the leadership of R Gowarikar in the Propellant Engineering Division (PED) at Veli then known as SSTC the work on composite propellants was initiated for rockets. According to ISRO officers, the nature of the development being strategic in nature and due to lack of open literature, it was essential to design each experiment with caution.

Several experiments were conducted in the initial phase with the available raw materials consisting of polyester resin, ammonium perchlorate and aluminium powder. Finally a composition was found to work in static firing which had nitroglycerine added to improve its energy and processability. This was a major breakthrough in the nation’s composite propellant programme for processing large solid motors.

In 50 years, the ISRO has progressed to the ‘golden era’ of launch vehicles starting from the humble beginnings of launching small sounding rockets to Launch Vehicles such as PSLV, GSLV Mk 2 & GSLV Mk 3. Today ISRO has the capability to launch 4 Tonne class using GSLV MK3. This has been possible due the development of the mammoth S200 solid booster that powers the initial moments of the flight regime of GSLV MK3.

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Your Forgetfulness Is A Sign Of Extraordinary Intelligence : Neuroscientists Say

In the event that you keep overlooking things, as critical dates, a companion’s birthday, the name of individuals you have met, words you need to utilize, you are most likely stressed.

Be that as it may, you can at last unwind, as per researchers, absent mindedness is an indication of higher insight. A few people have a progressively proficient mind and effectively remember more things and subtleties. Then again, there are individuals who can’t recollect modest subtleties or things they have taken in quite a while back.

As indicated by specialists Paul Frankland and Blake Richards from the University of Toronto, these minor cerebrum slips are totally ordinary, as the old recollections in the mind can be “overwritten” by new ones.

They likewise discovered that individuals with a superior memory are not really increasingly wise, and they really found that the inverse may be the case. They guarantee that it is considerably more valuable to remember a bigger size of everything and overlook modest certainties than retaining all subtleties.

As indicated by Prof. Richards, the mind overlooks unimportant subtleties and rather centers around the things that will enable you to settle on choices in reality.

To be specific, these two procedures collaborate with one another, taking into consideration “clever basic leadership in powerful, uproarious conditions. Educator Richards clarifies that the improvement of basic leadership is the genuine reason for memory, and the cerebrum accomplishes it by sifting through unimportant subtleties and concentrating on things that add to wise choices in reality.

‘Awful memory’ is really an instrument in the cerebrum which makes space for significant data and does not enable the mind to squander vitality and space recollecting unimportant data.

Likewise, ‘realities,’ are not what the mind sees as actualities as it centers around making a general image of the occasions or a streamlined form of some data, that will enable it to settle on a superior choice later.

Recollections are put away in the hippocampus on the cerebrum, and it deletes less vital information so as to have the capacity to concentrate on vital things. Along these lines, we settle on more shrewd and better choices.

He says that we as a whole realize that sport builds the quantity of neurons in the hippocampus, so these very subtleties from our life that are not critical, and may even keep us from using sound judgment.

Nonetheless, note that you have to look for therapeutic help on the off chance that you see that you overlook substantial sections of vital information. Otherwise, don’t stress, as it is completely ordinary to overlook minor paltry subtleties, in light of the fact that your cerebrum is as yet working appropriately.

Prof. Richards adds that it is a cause of concern if you are forgetting a lot more than normal, but if you forget the occasional detail, it might just mean that your memory system is perfectly healthy and doing exactly what it should be doing.


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What’s happening : Male Birth Control Pill Passes Human Safety Tests

A new male birth control pill passed tests of safety and tolerability when healthy men used it daily for a month, and it produced hormone responses consistent with effective contraception, according to researchers at two institutions testing the drug. The Phase 1 study results was presented Sunday, March 24 at ENDO 2019, the Endocrine Society’s annual meeting in New Orleans, La.

The exploratory male oral preventative is called 11-beta-methyl-19-nortestosterone dodecylcarbonate, or 11-beta-MNTDC. It is an adjusted testosterone that has the joined activities of a male hormone (androgen) and a progesterone, said the examination’s co-senior examiner, Christina Wang, M.D., Associate Director, Clinical and Translational Science Institute at Los Angeles Biomed Research Institute (LA BioMed), Torrance, Calif.

“Our outcomes propose that this pill, which consolidates two hormonal exercises in one, will diminish sperm creation while safeguarding charisma,” Wang said.

The investigation occurred in 40 sound men at LA BioMed and the University of Washington in Seattle, Wash. Ten examination members haphazardly got a fake treatment case, or sham medication. The other 30 men got 11-beta-MNTDC at one of two dosages; 14 men got 200 milligrams, or mg, and 16 got the 400 mg portion. Subjects took the medication or fake treatment once every day with sustenance for 28 days. The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, which is creating 11-beta-MNTDC and other male contraceptives, financed this examination

Credit: Pixabay

Among men accepting 11-beta-MNTDC, the normal circling testosterone level dropped as low as in androgen inadequacy, however the members purportedly did not encounter any extreme reactions. Wang said medicate reactions were not many, mellow and included weariness, skin inflammation or cerebral pain in four to six men each. Five men announced somewhat diminished sex drive, and two men portrayed gentle erectile brokenness, however sexual movement was not diminished, she said. Besides, no member quit taking the medication as a result of symptoms, and all finished wellbeing tests.

Impacts because of low testosterone were negligible, as per co-senior specialist, Stephanie Page, M.D., Ph.D., Professor of Medicine at the University of Washington School of Medicine, since “11-beta-MNTDC copies testosterone through the remainder of the body however isn’t sufficiently gathered in the testicles to help sperm creation.”

Dimensions of two hormones required for sperm creation dropped enormously contrasted with fake treatment, the specialists found. The medication impacts were reversible subsequent to halting treatment, Wang noted.

Since the medication would take something like three 60 to 90 days to influence sperm generation, 28 days of treatment is too short an interim to watch ideal sperm concealment, Wang clarified. They plan longer examinations, and on the off chance that the medication is powerful, it will move to bigger investigations and afterward testing in explicitly dynamic couples.

“Protected, reversible hormonal male contraception ought to be accessible in around 10 years,” Wang anticipated.

Wang said most men are available to utilizing this kind of male contraception. She refered to a worldwide overview of 9,000 men distributed in the diary Human Reproduction in February 2005 that found that 55 percent of men in stable connections need to attempt new, hormonal male preventative strategies on the off chance that they are reversible.

This exploratory prophylactic, 11-Beta-MNTDC, is a “sister compound” to dimethandrolone undecanoate, or DMAU, the main potential male anti-conception medication pill to experience testing by a similar research group. Their outcomes were distributed February 1, 2019 in The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism.

“The objective is to locate the intensify that has the least symptoms and is the best,” Page said. “We are creating two oral medications in parallel trying to move the [contraceptive medicine] field forward.”

This article has been republished from materials provided by Endocrine Society.

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Teen electrocuted while charging mobile phone

We all love to enjoy the music, for some music is a medicine and everything in their life. But sometimes it can take away your life too.

It can cause the death in the name of Electrocution.

What’s Electrocution?

Electrocution is death or serious injury caused by electric shock, electric current passing through the body. The word is derived from “electro” and “execution”, but it is also used for accidental death. The word is also used to describe non-fatal injuries due to electricity.

The term “electrocution” was coined in 1889 in the US just before the first use of the electric chair and originally referred only to electrical execution and not to accidental or suicidal electrical deaths. However, since no English word was available for non-judicial deaths due to electric shock, the word “electrocution” eventually took over as a description of all circumstances of electrical death from the new commercial electricity.

When it will happen?

It mostly happen with your phone when you keep your phone on charging and operating it, here in this context, when you keep your phone on charge and listening to music with headphones on.

As per the New Straits Times reports, Last week, a teenager was electrocuted to death while listening to headphones from a plugged-in mobile phone. Sixteen-year-old Mohd Aidi Azzhar Zahrin was discovered by his mother at their home in the town of Rembau, Malaysia, lying motionless on the floor and cold to the touch, Blood was pouring from his ear.

Medical checks showed no signs of bruising or external injuries to Mohd’s body, other than some burns on his left ear, and an autopsy later confirmed that the cause of death was electrocution. It’s understood that he was listening to the headphones while charging his phone.

Mohd is at least the fourth person this year to be killed by a headphone-inflicted electric shock.

In February, 17-year-old student Luiza Pinheiro was similarly found dead on the floor of her home in Riacho Frio, Brazil after a “huge electric charge” surged through her phone and the headphones melted in her ears as per NewsCorp.

“The girl’s grandmother told the doctor that they found her granddaughter unconscious, lying on the floor and with headphones in her ears,” a hospital employee told local media publication G1. “They said they believe that the young woman had an electric shock because the cell phone was charging and the phone was melted.”

In May, a 46-year-old woman in the Indian village of Kanathur was electrocuted after she fell asleep listening to music, The Times of India reported—with local police pointing to a short-circuit as a possible cause of the incident. Then, a month later, a 22-year-old man in the Indian village of Pandyo was listening to music from a plugged-in mobile phone while the electricity in his house was cut off. When the power came back online, the man received an electric shock through his headphones and was also killed, NDTV reported.

This isn’t a problem that’s specific to developing countries, either. In 2014, a 28-year-old Australian woman was found dead at her home in North Gosford, New South Wales after she’d been electrocuted by a USB cable that she was using to charge her phone while listening to music with headphones. In that case, the fatal shock was at least partly attributed to a faulty charging device, the ABC reported.

How we can save ourselves?

So please be careful while listening to music (When it’s on charging), better avoid and not to use your mobile phone while it is on charge.

Please find the below original links which are the sources for this article.

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